Glossary

Annealing

Refers to a brass pin that has been softened by heat treatment which makes the pin easier to crimp, rivet (swage) or bend.

Barb/Fish-Hook

A common feature provided on many pins, receptacles, and Spring Pin Connectors used for retention purposes in insulators or plastic housings.

Blind Mate

Mating of one or more components where visibility is obstructed or not clear.

Body

Machined out of brass alloy as the general housing or shell for the assembled connector.

Carrier

An assembly consisting of an insulator with male pins onto which receptacles are loaded. This assembly is employed as a fixture during the soldering operation and is then removed leaving a PC board populated with individual receptacles. Female carriers that load male pins are also available for special applications.

Clip

Multi-finger spring insert of a receptacle which completes the electrical path between a male pin and a female receptacle. Also referred to as a contact or contact clip.

Closed Entry

Refers to female contacts where the front rim prevents the insertion of an oversize pin that would otherwise damage the contact.

Compliancy

Contact's ability to accept multiple insertions and extractions of a wide range of pin shapes and sizes while retaining its original configuration.

Compliant Press Fit

Method of mounting an interconnect component to a PC board where a drilled and slotted receptacle or pin is pressed into a plated through hole without damaging the hole.

Constant Usage Temperature (CUT)

Constant Usage Temperature is a measure of the maximum temperature that a material may be exposed to for long periods of time, 1000-1500 hrs., before degradation of its electrical and mechanical properties occurs.

Contact (and Contact Clip)

Multi-finger spring insert of a receptacle which completes the electrical path between a male pin and a female receptacle. Also referred to as a clip.

Contact Rating

Current carrying capability of a contact measured in amperes with respect to temperature rise above ambient.

Contact Resistance

The electrical resistance at the point of connection determined by the contact geometry, area of contact, plating and normal force.

Coplanarity

Refers to the measurement of multiple points and their distance from a respective plane. This is particularly useful for surface mount parts to determine the maximum amount of difference in the height of the surfaces that need to be soldered.

Crimp

A deformation, typically located on the body/barrel of a pin, receptacle, or Spring Pin Connector. The deformation is created from a Crimp Tool. The region where the crimping occurs will be annealed to ease the crimping process.

Device under Test (DUT)

Device or part being tested

Durability

A part or products anticipated life expectancy. Actual life is derived from the application along with the application conditions, temperature/cleanliness of the environment, and mating pin specifications.

Electromechanical

To relate to or involve an electrically operated mechanical device

Electroplating

The electrodepositing of a metal coating on a conductive object such as a pin, shell, or contact clip.

Electroplating

One of the most important processes in the manufacturing of electronic parts and components is electroplating, which involves the application of a metal coating via electrodeposition. This is done for a number of reasons such as improving corrosion resistance, enhancing electrical conductivity, increasing the solderability of the substrate and protecting against wear.

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)

The momentary electric current that flows between two objects that may cause damage to electronic equipment.

End Stackable

The ability for connectors to be mounted end to end while maintaining grid or spacing.

Epoxy

Woven glass cloth epoxy laminate. Classified as a thermoset, the woven fibers of these materials enable them to withstand high temperatures without being damaged. Cut from large sheets of material, the insulator is then machined on a high speed drill/router, the same way as printed circuit boards are fabricated.

Extraction Force

The force required to remove a lead from a contact. Also known as withdrawal force.

Flange

An external or internal rib, or rim (lip), typically used for strength/support purpose.

Flash (Plating)

A very thin plating, usually less than 10 micro inches, only enough metal to uniformly cover the surface of the base metal.

Flatness

Sometimes used in place of coplanarity, flatness refers to the amount of variation of a plane or surface.

Floating Contact

In surface mount sockets, a receptacle designed to move up and down freely in an insulator to compensate for unevenly dispensed solder paste.

Free Machining Alloy

An alloy which is easy to machine, e.g. brass alloy 360.

Fretting

A form of corrosion caused by vibration.

Gas Tight Connection

An electrical connection of sufficient pressure to prevent the intrusion of a corrosive atmosphere into the contact area.

Gold Plating

Gold is commonly used in the plating of many different electronic components. Gold offers low and stable contact resistance and superior protection against corrosion. 

Nickel is often used to provide an underlying coating when using gold to plate electronics. Nickel acts as an extra corrosion inhibitor by preventing rust from penetrating pores in the surface. Nickel also prevents the diffusion of other metals into the gold surface such as zinc or copper. What's more, nickel can increase the durability of the gold-plated surface.

Mill-Max offers most of its products in standard platings ranging from 5 to 30 ┬Áin of gold over nickel. Since plating operations are conducted in house other thicknesses are available on request. 

Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT)

An industry recognized test for comparing the short term effects of high temperature on plastics.

Heat Treating

The process of using specific heating and cooling cycles to alter the mechanical properties of an alloy. Generally, heat treating can harden or soften a metal depending on the material, the parameters used and the desired physical property.

Hex Press Fit

A method of press-fitting either a pin or receptacle, using a hexagonal cross section, into a plated Through-hole without causing damage to the hole while still maintaining a gas tight seal.

High Speed Turning

See Precision-Machined.

Injection Molding

A method of molding plastics by first heating granular plastic to its molten state and injecting it into the mold cavity where the plastic solidifies and is then ejected from the cavity.

Insertion Force

The force required to insert a male lead into a female socket.

Interconnect

Means of connection that supplies an electrical connection between the cells.

Knurl

A vertical serration machined around the diameter of an interconnect pin providing a retention feature for Press-fitting in a PC board or insulator and also preventing rotation of the pin.

Land/Pad

Typically, gold plated, round or flat surface, commonly used for mating purposes.

LCP (Liquid Crystal Polymer)

Classified as a thermoplastic, LCP is a hard, rigid material which exhibits outstanding strength at high temperatures and exceptional strength and toughness in its thin walls. Applications: LCP is used as an insulator material for tight grid (.050", 2mm) connectors and extremely high temperature requirements.

Machined

Manufacturing process whereby a rapidly turning solid metal rod is cut to precise tolerances. Also known as Screw-Machined or Precision Machined.

Mating Pin

The pin used to interconnect two electronic devices by inserting it into the contact. Critical features are diameter, length, and shape (but not limited to.)

Max. Stroke

The maximum distance a plunger can be compressed.

Mid Stroke

Mid-Stroke will be (~) approximately half of the Max-Stroke. The preferred operating range for all Spring Pin Connectors will be Mid-Stroke.

Migration

For a brass part plated with tin or gold, the migration of zinc from brass to the surface of the plating. This becomes zinc oxide and renders the part unsolderable. Zinc migration is prevented by using a copper or nickel underplate as a barrier.

Mis-Alignment

Having incorrect alignment between mating components, features or products within a system.

Mounting Hole Size

Size call out for the mounting holes.

Nylon 46

Classified as thermoplastics. Nylon 46 offers superior heat resistance, good electrical properties and excellent toughness in its thin walls, which are desirable characteristics for connector insulators. Its superior strength in thin walls enables the press-fitting of pins in close proximity to each other without cracking or warping the material, making it ideal for molding 2mm and .050" grid insulators. Nylon 46 is suitable for high temperature applications including vapor phase, infra-red reflow and wave soldering operations.

Operating Temperature

An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates. The device will operate effectively within a specified temperature range which varies based on the device function and application context, and ranges from the minimum operating temperature to the maximum operating temperature (or peak operating temperature). Outside this range of safe operating temperatures the device may fail.

Overcompression

Sometimes occurs when a spring is compressed to the point where it sets and holds a position, essentially deforming and stretching the spring to an undesired position.

Passive Device or Component

An electronic connector that consumes electrical energy, but does not produce electrical energy. Passive devices are not susceptible to significant ESD damage.

PCB

Printed Circuit Board.

PCT (Polycyclohexane Terephthalate)

Thermoplastic polyester is rated for higher temperatures. PCT is a standard material on DIP and SIP insulators for higher temperature operations. All PGA and surface mount products are molded from PCT and are suitable for infra-red, vapor phase and wave soldering.

Plated Through-Hole

A hole in a printed circuit board which has metallic walls connected to conductors on the surface or inside the board, in which the component lead is inserted and soldered.

Plating

A process in which metals (e.g. gold, tin-lead, nickel, silver) are electrically deposited onto a base metal in very thin and precise thicknesses.

Plunger

An active driving component, typically driven by a spring.

Precision-Machined

Manufacturing process whereby a rapidly turning solid metal rod is cut to precise tolerances. Also known as Screw-Machined or just simply Machined.

Press-Fit

To use a designed (barb/fish-hook, hex, square, or knurl) feature to secure a pin, receptacle, or Spring Pin Connector into a board, housing, or plated thru hole.

Receptacle
Sometimes referred to as PCB sockets, micro-plugs or connector jacks, machined pin receptacles are known for their reliability and versatility. The pin receptacle is a 2 piece female contact consisting of an outer shell and inner spring contact (clip) designed for multiple mating/unmating cycles with a male pin or component lead. Used discretely in a PC Board or in plastic as connector arrays, receptacles make devices and modules pluggable for repair and replacement.
Screw-Machined

Manufacturing process whereby a rapidly turning solid metal rod is cut to precise tolerances. Also known as Precision-Machined or just simply Machined.

Secondary Machining

A process in which holes, slots, flats, squares or other special features may be machined onto a pin or receptacle after the basic shape of the part has been turned on a high speed lathe.

Shoulder

An external or internal rib, or rim (lip), typically used for strength/support purpose.

Shrink DIP Package

An IC which has a pin spacing of.070" on centers.

Side Load

A horizontal or lateral force that is applied to a part or component in an application.

Skiving

The removal of a thin amount of plating when pins or contacts are press fit. For example, soft platings may yield some amount of skiving upon press fitting into an insulator or board. Skiving may also appear under a contact clip pressed into a receptacle shell.

Solder Tail

For Through-Hole requirements, this tail feature serves as a stable anchor for either soldering or mounting.

Spring Force

The amount of force required to compress a plunger to a specified distance.

Spring Force Constant

(Conducted on a MM # 0900-X Spring Pin Connector) <br>
<br>
k = Force (60) - Preload (25)/Travel (.0275) = 1272.73 g/in.<br>
<br>

Preload = 25 g<br>
Force = 60 g<br>
Travel = .0275"<br>

Spring Rate

The spring rate of a spring will be determined by spring material, diameter of the material, and number of coils per the spring length.

Standoff

A protrusion at the bottom of the connector used to raise it off the PC board to aid in solder fillet formation, board inspection, flux removal and cleaning.

Swage Mount

A type of mounting commonly used with solder terminals and printed circuit pins where one end of the terminal is flared out (riveted) securing it to the PCB.

Thermal Coefficient of Expansion (TCE)

Expansion of material caused by an increase in temperature.

Thermoplastics

Type of plastic which is molded under heat and pressure and can be remelted & reused many times.

Thermoset

Type of plastic which is heat cured into a permanent shape, and due to chemical reaction, cannot be remelted.

Top Plate

Final surface plating over base metal and underplating.

Underplate

Plating between the base metal and the top plating.

Wire Crimp

Please see Wire Termination

Wire Termination

Typically involves wire insertion, crimping or soldering into the vacant coaxial hole located on the pin/receptacle.

Withdrawal Force

The force required to remove a lead from a contact. Also known as extraction force.

Wrapost (Terminal or Receptacle)

The length of square cross section of certain pins and receptacles which is used for making electrical connections via wire wrapping. Wire wrapping is a process in which wire is wrapped around the post to form a gas-tight connection without soldering.

Last Updated: 09/21/2018 07:58 AM